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9 More Money for Education Discussion Guide As a bague argent oeil horus result, student teacher ratios in California are unusually high, which makes it even harder to address the considerable needs of California’s students: More children in California live bague argent homme paris in poverty than in most states; many are learning English; and many have special education needs. Because education funding depends heavily on income taxes paid by the top 1% of taxpayers, it tends to boom and bust with the stock market. They fall into four categories: A Larger Slice. Commit bracelet femme avec montre more of the state budget toward education A Bigger Pie. Raise taxes at the state level to provide more money for bague argent ebene education A Different Pie. Allow local taxes to provide new money for education Actual Pie. bijoux pas cher Hold bake sales (and other bague argent et ambre vert local fundraisers) Solutions have to start with an understanding of the problem. In about 2005, a coalition of education bague argent et verre funders argent 925 bague argent femme pooled their efforts to sponsor Getting Down to Facts, an ambitious research effort to give clear advice to the Education Excellence Committee, an expert panel appointed by then governor Arnold Schwarzenegger to recommend changes consistent with the research. (Disclosure: Ed100 founder Jeff Camp served on this committee.) Among its main recommendations, released in January 2008, the bague argent boite committee called for a thorough reinvention of California’s school funding system. It envisioned a model in which more money would go toward schools where more resources were needed to help students succeed. coque samsung Much of this recommendation was accomplished in 2013 with passage of the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF). chaussons pokemon California schools are not within bake sale distance of nationally normal funding The committee also urged lawmakers to add several billion dollars to bague argent 925 originale the state education budget. The opposite happened. When the “great recession” hit, K bracelet femme platine 12 funding was cut dramatically. bracelet homme Education budgets fell about 20% between 2008 and 2012. It took seven years for education funding to recover to its 2008 level, adjusted for inflation. A Larger Slice for Education Polls assure us that, in principle, Californians want better funded schools . collier argent if they don’t have to pay for bracelet femme sport them. teeshirt licorne For example, in 1988 voters passed Proposition 98, a measure that didn’t increase taxes but required lawmakers to commit a greater portion of the state budget toward education. coque huawei At budget time, advocates for other causes (like social services or the environment) can be excused for regarding the education budget with a degree of envy. coque iphone The budget process is zero sum: there are winners and losers. Proposition 98 has often served as a powerful advantage for education advocates; if a draft budget fails to meet the minimum bar of the “Prop 98 guarantee” lawmakers can expect a stern conversation and the occasional threat of litigation. Litigation (or the threat of it) over education budgets is not unique to California. iphone hoesje bague argent et pierre noir Because education is a basic function of government, it tends to be mentioned in state constitutions. In some states, education advocates have successfully prompted increased spending through judicial pressure. coque iphone Efforts to spur increased education spending (beyond the Prop 98 minumum) bague argent pendentif rond through education “equity and adequacy” litigation are common among the states, and in some places, notably New bracelet femme moto York, have spurred major increases in educational investment. Related cases have not been particularly fruitful in California. (See our blog for more.) Litigation over the condition of education has not been entirely without effect, however. In 2004, California settled a class action case usually known as the Williams bracelet femme morellato Case. The settlement established some minimum requirements and services that schools must provide, including up to date textbooks, qualified teachers, enough seats for students, and classrooms free of vermin. In 2018 research into the practical meaning of an adequate education was included as a part of the Getting Down to Facts II project. coque huawei A team of researchers led by Jennifer Imazeki concluded that in the 2016 17 school year “providing an adequate education would have required California to spend $22.1 billion more. coque samsung almost a third more than that year’s spending levels.” Of course, education advocates cannot just rely on initiatives and litigation to make the case that public education deserves its share of the budget pie. After all, other functions of government need funding, too. bague argent femme noir The California Budget Challenge is an informative, playful, nonpartisan, nonprofit website that helps to make budget bague argent massif 925 tradeoffs more concrete for voters in California. It feels a bit like a game, and works well as a group activity. A Bigger Pie Occasionally, the solution is not zero sum. coque huawei In 2012, voters rescued schools from big cuts by passing Proposition 30, which raised taxes, though only on the state’s wealthiest earners. coque iphone The taxes were extended to bracelet femme solide 2030 when voters passed Prop 55 in 2016. A Different Pie: Local Taxes and changes to Proposition 13 Survey results consistently show that Californians can be supportive when taxes are local, and in support of local schools. Solid majorities (roughly six in ten) say they would support a local tax to support schools in their community. In this case, the will of the majority is not enough. By passing Proposition 13, in 1978 California voters amended the California constitution to make it very difficult to pass taxes. coque huawei The theory is that voters, like Odysseus, should have the power to tie themselves to the mast to resist temptation. Prop 13 requires that local governments, including school districts, must get 2/3 voter approval to pass special taxes. coque iphone Prop 13 also prohibited school districts from raising property taxes based on the value of property (“ad valorem” taxes), except for issuing General Obligation Bonds for facilities. The main available instrument bague argent et rubis pas cher for local taxation is the “parcel tax,” which has bague argent pampille ronde been ruled permissible because it is not “ad valorem.” Parcel taxes are based on the existence of a parcel bague argent femme lion of property rather than on its value. Under the rules of Prop 13, a school district can propose a parcel tax and pass it with 2/3 of votes cast. coque huawei It is very difficult to get 2/3 of voters to agree to anything, but some districts manage it. Lesson 8.10 goes into more detail about parcel taxes. coque samsung In any major conversation about education bague argent disque funding, the elephant in the room is Proposition 13, which we discuss in another lesson. coque iphone Multiple efforts to amend this crucial measure have gone nowhere. It remains popular, especially among Californians who have owned property long enough for it to have gained in value. The Silicon Valley Community Foundation commissioned a major review of Prop 13 in 2013 to explain bague argent lapin the issues and challenges. It seems likely that at some point new changes to California’s property taxes will again be proposed, but then again it has seemed that way for a long time. coque huawei Any time there is a hint bague argent pierre couleur of a possibility of a chance for change in the 2/3 rule, it is a big deal. For example, a 2017 California Supreme Court ruling in a case about medical marijuana dispensaries appeared to suggest some wiggle room.